Klamath Center for

Conservation Research


Publications of the Klamath Center for Conservation Research

Journal Publications

Carroll, C., R.F. Noss, and B.A. Stein. 2022. US conservation atlas needs biodiversity data. Science https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abo0526

Carroll, C., D.J. Rohlf, and Y. Epstein. 2022. Mainstreaming the ambition, coherence, and comprehensiveness of the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework into conservation policy. SocArXiv https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/ugqx2

Dobrowski, S.Z., C.E. Littlefield, D.S. Lyons, C. Hollenberg, C. Carroll, and S.A. Parks. 2021. Protected-area targets could be undermined by climate change-driven shifts in ecoregions and biomes. Communications Earth & Environment 2: 1-11 https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-021-00270-z

Carroll, C., and J.C. Ray. 2021. Maximizing the effectiveness of national commitments to protected area expansion for conserving biodiversity and ecosystem carbon under climate change. Global Change Biology 27: 3395-3414 https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15645

Carroll, C., and R.F. Noss. 2021. How percentage-protected targets can support positive biodiversity outcomes. Conservation Biology https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13869

Carroll, C., D.J. Rohlf, B.M. VonHoldt, A. Treves, and S.A. Hendricks. 2021. Wolf delisting challenges demonstrate need for an improved framework for conserving intraspecific variation under the Endangered Species Act. BioScience 71: 73-84 https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biaa125

Parks, S.A., C. Carroll, S.Z. Dobrowski, and B.W. Allred. 2020. Human land uses reduce climate connectivity across North America. Global Change Biology 26: 2944-2955.https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15009

Carroll, C., and R.F. Noss. 2020. Rewilding in the face of climate change. Conservation Biology 35: 155-167. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13531

Stralberg, D., C. Carroll, S.E. Nielsen. 2020. Toward a climate-informed North American protected areas network: Incorporating climate-change refugia and corridors in conservation planning. Conservation Letters 13:e12712https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12712

Carroll, C., R.C. Lacy, R.J. Fredrickson, D.J. Rohlf, S.A. Hendricks, M.K. Phillips. 2019. Biological and sociopolitical sources of uncertainty in population viability analysis for endangered species recovery planning. Scientific reports 9: 10130https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-45032-2

Carroll, C., S.A. Parks, S.Z. Dobrowski, and D.R. Roberts. 2018. Climatic, topographic, and anthropogenic factors determine connectivity between current and future climate analogs in North America. Global Change Biology 24:5318-5331. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/gcb.14373

Belote, R.T., C. Carroll, S. Martinuzzi, J. Michalak, J.W. Williams, M.A. Williamson, and G.H. Aplet. 2018. Assessing agreement among alternative climate change projections to inform conservation recommendations in the contiguous United States. Scientific Reports 8:9441. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-27721-6

Stralberg, D., C. Carroll, J.H. Pedlar, C.B. Wilsey, D.W. McKenney, and S.E. Nielsen. 2018. Macrorefugia for North American trees and songbirds: Climatic limiting factors and multi-scale topographic influences. Global Ecology and Biogeography 27:690-703. PDF.

Michalak, J.L., J.J. Lawler, D.R. Roberts, and C. Carroll. 2018. Distribution and protection of climatic refugia in North America. Conservation Biology 32:1414-1425. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/cobi.13130

Carroll, C., B. Hartl, G.T. Goldman, D.J. Rohlf, A. Treves, J.T. Kerr, E.G. Ritchie, R.T. Kingsford, K.E. Gibbs, M. Maron, J.E.M Watson. 2017. Defending the scientific integrity of conservation-policy processes. Conservation Biology 5:967-975. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cobi.12958/full

Littlefield, C. E., B. H. McRae, J. Michalak, J. J. Lawler, C. Carroll. 2017. Connecting today's climates to future analogs to facilitate species movement under climate change. Conservation Biology 31:1397-1408. doi:10.1111/cobi.12938 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cobi.12938/abstract

Belote, R. T., M. S. Dietz, P. S. McKinley, A. A. Carlson, C. Carroll, C. N. Jenkins, D. L. Urban, T. J. Fullman, J. C. Leppi, G. H. Aplet. 2017. Mapping Conservation Strategies under a Changing Climate. BioScience 67:494-497. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix028

Carroll, C., D. R. Roberts, J. L. Michalak, et al. 2017. Scale-dependent complementarity of climatic velocity and environmental diversity for identifying priority areas for conservation under climate change. Global Change Biology 23:4508-4520. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13679

Wang, T., A. Hamann, D. Spittlehouse, C. Carroll. 2016. Locally Downscaled and Spatially Customizable Climate Data for Historical and Future Periods for North America. PLOS ONE 11(6): e0156720. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156720

Carroll. C., J. J. Lawler, D. R. Roberts, and A. Hamann. 2015. Biotic and climatic velocity identify contrasting areas of vulnerability to climate change. PLOS ONE 10(10): e0140486. PDF (8MB)

Hamann, A., D. R. Roberts, Q. E. Barber, C. Carroll, and S. E. Nielsen. 2015. Velocity of climate change algorithms for guiding conservation and management. Global Change Biology 21:997-1004. PDF (1MB)

Wolf, S., B. Hartl, C. Carroll, M. C. Neel, D. N. Greenwald. 2015. Beyond PVA: Why Recovery under the Endangered Species Act Is More than Population Viability. BioScience 65 (2): 200-207. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biu218

Carroll, C. 2014. Can a conservation-oriented scientific society remain relevant in the 21st century?. Conservation Biology (Early View). PDF (1MB)

Rohlf, D. J., C. Carroll, B. Hartl. 2014. Conservation-reliant species: Toward a biology-based definition. Bioscience (Online Early). PDF (1MB)

Carroll, C., D. J. Rohlf, Y. W. Li, B. Hartl, M. K. Phillips, R. F. Noss. 2014. Connectivity conservation and endangered species recovery: A study in the challenges of defining conservation-reliant species. Conservation Letters
(Online Early). PDF (1MB)

Schumaker, N. H., A. Brookes, J. R. Dunk, B. Woodbridge, J. A. Heinrichs, J. J. Lawler, C. Carroll, D. LaPlante. 2014. Mapping sources, sinks, and connectivity using a simulation model of northern spotted owls. Landscape Ecology (Online Early). PDF (1MB)

Carroll, C., R. J. Fredrickson, and R. C. Lacy. 2013. Developing Metapopulation Connectivity Criteria from Genetic and Habitat Data to Recover the Endangered Mexican Wolf. Conservation Biology 28:76-86. PDF (1MB) PDF of Supplementary Material (3MB).

Carroll, C., D. J. Rohlf, B. R. Noon, and J. M. Reed. 2012. Scientific Integrity in Recovery Planning and Risk Assessment: Comment on Wilhere. Conservation Biology 26:743-745. PDF (3MB)

Carroll, C., B. McRae, and A. Brookes. 2011. Use of linkage mapping and centrality analysis across habitat gradients to conserve connectivity of gray wolf populations in western North America. Conservation Biology 26:78-87. PDF (1MB) PDF of Supplementary Material (1MB).

Carroll, C., D. S. Johnson, J. R. Dunk, and W. J. Zielinski. 2010. Hierarchical Bayesian spatial models for multi-species conservation planning and monitoring. Conservation Biology 24:1538-1648. PDF (4MB) PDF of Supplementary Material (1MB).

Carroll, C. 2010.  Role of climatic niche models in focal-species-based conservation planning: assessing potential effects of climate change on Northern Spotted Owl in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Biological Conservation 143:1432-1437. PDF (1MB).

Carroll, C., J. A. Vucetich, M. P. Nelson, D. J. Rohlf, and M. K. Phillips. 2010. Geography and recovery under the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Conservation Biology 24:395-403
. PDF (1MB) PDF of Supplementary Material (1MB).

Carroll, C., J. R. Dunk, and A. J. Moilanen. 2010. Optimizing resiliency of reserve networks to climate change: multi-species conservation planning in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Global Change Biology 16:891904. PDF (1MB) PDF of Supplementary Material (1MB).

Carroll, C. and D. S. Johnson. 2008. The importance of being spatial (and reserved): assessing Northern Spotted Owl habitat relationships with hierarchical Bayesian models. Conservation Biology 22:1026-1036. PDF (1MB).

Carroll, C. 2007. Interacting effects of climate change, landscape conversion, and harvest on carnivore populations at the range margin: marten and lynx in the northern Appalachians. Conservation Biology 21:1092-1104. PDF (2MB).

Carroll, C., and D. Miquelle. 2006. Spatial viability analysis of Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica in the Russian Far East: the role of protected areas and landscape matrix in population persistence. Journal of Applied Ecology 43:1056-68. PDF (1MB).

Zielinski, W. J., C. Carroll, and J. Dunk. 2006. Using landscape suitability models to reconcile conservation planning for two key forest predators. Biological Conservation 133:409-430. PDF (4MB).

Carroll, C., R. Rodriguez, C. McCarthy, and K. Paulin. 2006. Resource selection function models as tools for regional conservation planning for Northern Goshawk in Utah. Studies in Avian Biology 31:288-298. PDF (2MB).

Carroll, C. M. K. Phillips, C. A. Lopez-Gonzalez, and N. H. Schumaker. 2006. Defining recovery goals and strategies for endangered species: the wolf as a case study. Bioscience 56:25-37. PDF (3MB).

Zielinski, W. J, R. L. Truex, F. V. Schlexer, L. A. Campbell, and C. Carroll. 2005. Historical and contemporary distributions of carnivores in forest of the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A.  Journal of Biogeography 32:1385-1407. PDF (8MB).

Carroll, C., R. F. Noss, P. C. Paquet and N. H. Schumaker. 2004. Extinction debt of protected areas in developing landscapes. Conservation Biology 18:1110-1120. PDF (1MB).

Carroll, C., R. F. Noss, P. C. Paquet, and N. H. Schumaker. 2003. Use of population viability analysis and reserve selection algorithms in regional conservation plans. Ecological Applications 13:1773-1789. PDF (2MB).

Carroll, C., M. K.Phillips, N. H. Schumaker, and D. W. Smith. 2003. Impacts of landscape change on wolf restoration success: planning a reintroduction program based on static and dynamic spatial models. Conservation Biology 17:536-548. PDF (2MB).

Noss, R. F., C. Carroll, K. Vance-Borland, and G. Wuerthner. 2002. A multicriteria assessment of the irreplaceability and vulnerability of sites in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Conservation Biology 16:895-908. PDF (6MB).

Carroll, C., R. F. Noss, and P. C. Paquet. 2001. Carnivores as focal species for conservation planning in the Rocky Mountain region. Ecological Applications 11:961-980. PDF (2MB).

Carroll, C., W. J. Zielinski, and R. F. Noss. 1999. Using survey data to build and test spatial habitat models for the fisher (Martes pennanti) in the Klamath region, U.S.A.  Conservation Biology 13:1344-1359. PDF (1MB).

Book Chapters

Carroll, C., W. D. Spencer, and J. C. Lewis. 2012. Use of Habitat and Viability Models in Martes Conservation and Restoration. Pages 429-450 in K. Aubry, ed. Biology and Conservation of Martens, Sables, and Fishers: A New Synthesis. Conrell University Press, Ithaca, NY. PDF (2MB).

Carroll, C. 2006. Linking connectivity to viability: insights from spatially-explicit population models of large carnivores. Pages 369-389 in Crooks K, Sanjayan MA, eds. Connectivity Conservation. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press. PDF (1MB).

Carroll, C., R. F. Noss, N. H. Schumaker, and P. C. Paquet. 2001. Is the return of the wolf, wolverine, and grizzly bear to Oregon and California biologically feasible?. Pages 25-46 in Maehr D, Noss RF, Larkin J, Eds. Large Mammal Restoration: Ecological and Sociological Challenges in the 21st Century. Washington (DC): Island Press. PDF (4MB).

Carroll, C. 2013. Connectivity Analysis Toolkit Manual, version 1.3. Klamath Center for Conservation Research, Orleans, CA. PDF (1MB)

Carroll, C., D. C. Odion, C. A. Frissell, D. D. Dellasala, B. R. Noon, and R. Noss. 2009. Conservation implications of coarse-scale versus fine-scale management of forest ecosystems: Are reserves still relevant? Klamath Center for Conservation Research, Orleans, CA. PDF (2MB)

Environment Canada. 2008. Scientific Review for the Identification of Critical Habitat for Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), Boreal Population, in Canada. August 2008. Ottawa: Environment Canada. PDF (12MB)

Carroll, C. 2005. Priority areas for grizzly bear conservation in western North America: an analysis of habitat and population viability. Klamath Center for Conservation Research, Orleans, CA. PDF (4MB).

Carroll, C. 2005. A reanalysis of regional fisher suitability including survey data from commercial forests in the redwood region. Klamath Center for Conservation Research, Orleans, CA. PDF of Text (50K).
PDF of figures (9MB)

Carroll, C. 2005. Carnivore Restoration in the Northeastern U.S. and Southeastern Canada: A Regional-Scale Analysis of Habitat and Population Viability for Wolf, Lynx, and Marten (Report 2: Lynx and Marten Viability Analysis). Wildlands Project Special Paper No. 6. Richmond, VT: Wildlands Project. 46 pp. PDF (13MB).

Carroll, C., M. K. Phillips, and C. A. Lopez-Gonzalez. 2005. Spatial analysis of restoration potential and population viability of the wolf (Canis lupus) in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Klamath Center for Conservation Research, Orleans, CA. PDF of Text (200K). PDF of figures (10MB)

Carroll, C. 2003. Impacts of Landscape Change on Wolf Viability in the Northeastern U.S. and Southeastern Canada: Implications for Wolf Recovery. Wildlands Project Special Paper No. 5. Richmond, VT: Wildlands Project. 31 pp. PDF (17MB).

Carroll, C., R. F. Noss, and P. C. Paquet. 2002. Rocky Mountain Carnivore Project - final report. World Wildlife Fund Canada. Toronto, Ontario. PDF (33MB).

Carroll, C., R. F. Noss, and P. C. Paquet. 2001. Modeling carnivore habitat in the Rocky Mountain region: a literature review and suggested strategy. World Wildlife Fund Canada. Toronto, Ontario. PDF (1MB).

Carroll, C. 1999. Regional-scale predictive models of the distribution of the California spotted owl: an exploratory analysis. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Arcata, CA. PDF (1MB).